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英语Essay写作三步曲
来源:百通兼职_武汉兼职信息网      发布日期:2017-09-06

立题:(具体话题--写介绍---文章总观点)

论述:各段(由各观点推出)

总结:根据文章要求和各段讨论的观点,得出最终结论

1、第一段:首先,介绍背景 可以讲个故事,可以是介绍背景(从国际到国内再到具体的地方)

2、定一个具体的话题:(可以)搜索资料---然后,根据找出的观点反推出各段(错误/正确)观点

3、有了各段的观点---推出文章总观点


文章讨论分析--具体的案例:


如何写作文

论文想写的好写的快,必须要明白其中的套路。请先阅读下文章及中文解释,从中找到套路。

Abstract

A survey of 50 first- year college students in an introductory biology class was conducted. The survey consisted of 5 questions regarding the causes and results of sleep deprivation and specifically addressed the students' study methods and the grades they received on the fall midterm. The study' s hypothesis was that although students believe that forgoing sleep to study will yield better grades, sleep deprivation may actually cause a decrease in performance. The study concluded that while only 43% of the students who received either an A or a B on the fall midterm deprived themselves of sleep in order to cram for the test, 90% of those who received a C or a D were sleep deprived. (作为一篇长论文,摘要直接描述 文章采用的调查表的研究方法,观点、结果,)


Sleep Deprivation in College Students (文章标题,讲话题局限在大学生)

1. For many college students, sleep is a luxury they feel they cannot afford. Bombarded with tests and assignments and limited by a 24- hour day, students often attempt to make up time by doing without sleep. (描述学生生活特点:考试、作业)Ironically, however, students may actually hurt their academic performance by failing to get enough sleep. (大学生与睡眠)According to several psychological and medical studies, sleep deprivation can lead to memory loss and health problems, both of which are more likely to harm a student' s academic performance than to help it. (文章的总观点  thesis statement 心理和医学研究说明 缺少睡眠导致学业成绩下降,注意第一段的最后一句是文章的总观点

                       

                                 Background

2. Sleep is often overlooked as an essential part of a healthy lifestyle.(主旨句,睡眠经常被忽略) Millions of Americans wake up daily to alarm clocks because their bodies have not gotten enough sleep. This indicates that for many people, sleep is viewed as a luxury rather than a necessity. (举例子对主旨句进行解释,美国人用闹钟强迫自己起来)As National Sleep Foundation Executive Director Richard L. Gelula observes, "Some of the problems we face as a society— from road rage to obesity— may be linked to lack of sleep or poor sleep" (National Sleep Foundation, 2002, 3).(引用:缺少睡眠坏处多) In fact, according to the National Sleep Foundation, "excessive sleepiness is associated with reduced short- term memory and learning ability, negative mood, inconsistent performance, poor productivity and loss of some forms of behavioral control" (2000, 2). (举了两个研究说明 睡眠对健康生活的重要性,举反例)

3. Sleep deprivation is particularly common among college students, many of whom have busy lifestyles and are required to memorize a great deal of material before their exams. (主旨句,大学生经常在考前不睡觉)It is common for college students to take a quick nap between classes or fall asleep while studying in the library because they are sleep deprived.(现象1 描述:很多大学生课件打瞌睡) Approximately 44% of young adults experience daytime sleepiness at least a few days a month (National Sleep Foundation, 2002, 6). (再引用研究说明缺少睡眠的比率)Many students face daytime sleepiness on the day of an exam because they stayed up all night studying. These students believe that if they read and review immediately before taking a test— even though this usually means losing sleep— they will remember more information and thus get better grades. (学生考前不睡觉现象背后的大的理由:临时抱佛脚)However, this is not the case(转折,承上启下对大学生考前不睡觉的观点进行反击).

4. A study conducted by professors Mary Carskadon at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, and Amy Wolfson at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts, showed that high school students who got adequate sleep were more likely to do well in their classes (Carpenter, 2001). According to their study of the correlation between grades and sleep, students who went to bed earlier on both weeknights and weekends earned mainly A' s and B' s. The students who received D' s and F' s averaged about 35 minutes less sleep per day than the high achievers (cited in Carpenter). (引用的相关研究,表明睡眠与成绩的关系)Apparently, then, sleep is essential to high academic achievement.(在例子后面出现主旨句,显得更加客观严谨

5. Once students reach college and have the freedom to set their own schedules, however, many believe that sleep is a luxury they can do without.错误观点 :学生认为睡眠不重要) For example, students believe that if they use the time they would normally sleep to study, they will do better on exams.(举例解释为什么学生不睡觉) A recent survey of 144 undergraduate students in introductory psychology classes contradicted this assumption. According to this study, "long sleepers," those individuals who slept 9 or more hours out of a 24- hour day, had significantly higher grade point average (GPAs) than "short sleepers," individuals who slept less than 7 hours out of a 24- hour day. Therefore, contrary to the belief of many college students, more sleep is often required to achieve a high GPA (Kelly, Kelly, &Clanton, 2001).(例子后的主旨句,引用研究发现说明是睡眠跟成绩很相关,

6. Many students believe that sleep deprivation is not the cause of their poor performance, but rather that a host of other factors might be to blame.(错误观点,成绩取决于其他因素而非睡眠) A study in the Journal of American College Health tested the effect that several factors have on a student' s performance in school, as measured by students' GPAs. Some of the factors considered included exercise, sleep, nutritional habits, social support, time management techniques, stress management techniques, and spiritual health (Trockel, Barnes, & Egget, 2000). The most significant correlation discovered in the study was between GPA and the sleep habits of students. Sleep deprivation had a more negative impact on GPAs than any other factor did (Trockel et al.). (例子后的主旨句,睡眠在影响成绩的各个因素中最重要)

7. Despite these findings, many students continue to believe that they will be able to remember more material if they do not sleep at all before an exam. They fear that sleeping will interfere with their ability to retain information. (错误观点:考前不睡觉可以记下更多东西)Pilcher & Walters (1997), however, showed that sleep deprivation actually impaired learning skills. In this study, one group of students was sleep- deprived, while the other got 8 hours of sleep before the exam. Each group estimated how well it had performed on the exam. The students who were sleep- deprived believed their performance on the test was better than did those who were not sleep- deprived, but actually the performance of the sleep- deprived students was significantly worse than that of those who got 8 hours of sleep prior to the test (Pilcher & Walters, 1997, cited in Bubolz, Brown, & Soper, 2001). This study confirms that sleep deprivation harms cognitive performance even though many students believe that the less sleep they get, the better they will do. (例子后的主旨句,缺少睡眠影响认知能力)

8. A survey of students in an introductory biology class at the University of Texas demonstrated the effects of sleep deprivation on academic performance and supported the hypothesis that despite students' beliefs, forgoing sleep does not lead to better test scores

2158311638

(省略了一些研究方法)

Discussion(最后总结)

18. For many students, sleep is viewed as a luxury rather than as a necessity. ( 学生存在的错误观点)Particularly during the exam period, students use the hours in which they would normally sleep to study(具体到考试前). However, this method does not seem to be effective.(转折) The survey discussed here reveals a clear correlation between sleep deprivation and lower exam scores. (实验结果说明 睡眠与成绩十分相关)In fact, the majority of students who performed well on the exam, earning either an A or a B, were not deprived of sleep.(进一步说明实验结果,睡的好,成绩好) Therefore, students who choose studying over sleep should rethink their approach and consider that sleep deprivation may actually lead to impaired academic performance.(建议:)


References

Bubolz, W., Brown, F., & Soper, B. (2001). Sleep habits and patterns of college students: A preliminary study. Journal of American College Health, 50, 131— 135.

Carpenter, S. (2001). Sleep deprivation may be undermining teen health. Monitor on Psychology, 32 (9). Retrieved March 9, 2006, form http:// www. apa. org/ monitor/ oct01/ sleepteen. html

Kelly, W. E., Kelly, K. E., & Clanton, R. C. (2001). The relationship between sleep length and grade- point average among college students. College Student Journal, 35 (1), 84— 90.

National Sleep Foundation. (2000). Adolescent sleep needs and patterns: Research report and resource guide. Retrieved March 16, 2006, from http:// www. sleepfoundation. org/ publications/ sleep_ and_ teens_ report1. pdf

National Sleep Foundation. (2002, April). Epidemic of daytime sleepiness linked to increased feelings of anger, stress, and pessimism. Retrieved March 14, 2006, from http:// www. sleepfoundation. org/ nsaw/ pk_ pollresultsmood. html

Trockel, M., Barnes, M., & Egget, D. (2000). Health- related variables and academic performance among first- year college students: Implications for sleep and other behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 49, 125— 131.

总结文章

Sleep Deprivation in College Students

大学生的生活特点,大学生睡眠特点,提出观点:心理和医学证明 缺少睡眠有害于成绩

  Background

第一段  现代人普遍缺睡眠, 举例,美人国的用闹钟的习惯,进一步举例说明睡眠缺少的后果

第二段 缩小话题到大学生缺少睡眠,用作者观察到的说明大学生缺少睡眠的现象(课件打盹),引用数字说明缺睡的比率,从而因此为什么缺睡:为提高成绩

第三段:引用两个研究 抛出文章的观点:睡眠对成绩很重要

第三段: 错误观点:大学生认为睡眠不重要, 用学生的话解释不睡觉学习的原因,然后,引用研究说明 睡的好,考的好的观点

第四段:错误观点:睡眠对成绩影响不大 , 引用研究说明: 睡眠对成绩影响的比其他因素大

第五段:错误观点:考前冲刺不睡觉有助提高成绩,引用研究说明:不睡觉会导致认知能力下降,从而影响考试成绩

总结

( 学生存在的关于睡眠错误观点)(具体到考试前)转折(实验结果说明 睡眠与成绩十分相关)(进一步说明实验结果,睡的好,成绩好)(建议:)

启迪:

    第一段:首先,介绍背景  可以讲个故事,可以是介绍背景(从国际到国内在到具体的地方)

    定一个具体的话题:(可以)搜索资料---然后,根据找出的观点反推出各段(错误/正确)观点

   

    有了各段的观点---推出文章总观点

   写作步骤  1 (具体话题--写介绍---文章总观点)2 各段(由各观点推出)




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